Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures

Tabula Contentorum

Pars

Capitulum

Auctor/trix

Paginae

I. Epistemologies

1. Haunted Culture

Christopher Partridge

39-49

I. Epistemologies

2. Ghost in the Machine

John Harvey

51-64

I. Epistemologies

3. Culture Practices

Annette Hill

65-78

I. Epistemologies

4. Experiences with UFOs

David Clarke

79-93

I. Epistemologies

5. Ghosts in the Body

Robert Peckham

95-106

I. Epistemologies

6. Culture of Disbelief

William J. Dewan

107-120

I. Epistemologies

7. Paranormal Science in Italy

Andrea Molle & Christopher D. Bader

121-137

I. Epistemologies

8. Platonic Context

Angela Voss

139-148

I. Epistemologies

9. Everyday Ghosts

Abby Day

149-158

I. Epistemologies

10. Appearance of Ghosts

Paul Cowdell

159-169

I. Epistemologies

11. Death and the Afterlife

Diane Dobry

171-187

II. Social Change

12. Aitheric Warriors

Sarah Jane Sloane

189-201

II. Social Change

13. Mediumship

Esther Peeren

203-214

II. Social Change

14. Politics of the Paranormal

Heather Nunn & Anita Biressi

215-225

II. Social Change

15. Realism and the Paranormal

Olu Jenzen

227-239

II. Social Change

16. Haunted by History

Josephine Machon

241-254

II. Social Change

17. The Anomalous State

Wendy E. Cousins

255-266

II. Social Change

18. Spiritualist Archive

Mari`a del Pilar Blanco

267-280

II. Social Change

19. Visions of the Paranormal

Karin Beeler

281-296

III. Phainomenologies

20. Telepathy Philosophy

Kristen Gallerneaux Brooks

297-309

III. Phainomenologies

21. Afterlife of Objects

Jennifer Fisher

311-325

III. Phainomenologies

22. Music and the Paranormal

Melvyn J. Willin

327-337

III. Phainomenologies

23. Conjuring the Spirits

Jon Armstrong

339-349

III. Phainomenologies

24. Trance Transfiguration

Janet Baldwin

351-361

III. Phainomenologies

25. Ghosthunting Scene

Gerhard Meyer

363-376

III. Phainomenologies

26. The GHost Project

Sarah Sparkes

377-389

III. Phainomenologies

27. Praehistoric Ghosts

Gareth E. Rees

391-403

III. Phainomenologies

28. Bestiary of Creatures

Line Henriksen

405-416

pp. xiii-xviii affiliations of contributores & contributrices

p.

name

gendre

university

xiii

Jon Armstrong

M

--


Christopher D. Bader

M

Chapman (Orange, CA)


Janet Baldwin

F

Curtin (Western Australia)


Karin Beeler

F

Northern British Columbia


Anita Biressi

F

Roehampton

xiv

Mari`a del Pilar Blanco

F

Oxford : Trinity College


David Clarke

M

Sheffield Hallam


Wendy E. Cousins

F

Ulster (Northern Ireland)


Paul Cowdell

M

--


Abby Day

F

Kent (England)


William J. Dewan

M

New Mexico


Diane Dobry

F

State Univ of NY (Cobleskill)

xv

Jennifer Fisher

F

York (Toronto)


Kristen Gallerneaux Brooks

F

California (San Diego)


John Harvey

M

Aberystwyth (Wales)


Line Henriksen

F

--


Annette Hill

F

Lund (Sweden)


Olu Jenzen

F

Art Design & Media


Josephine Machon

F

Middlesex (London)

xvi

Gerhardt Mayer

M

Freiburg (Germany)


Andrea Molle

M

Chapman (Orange, CA)


Sally R. Munt

F

Sussex (England)


Heather Nunn

F

Roehampton


Christopher Partridge

M

Lancaster (England)


Robert Peckham

M

Hong Kong

xvii

Esther Peeren

F

Amsterdam


Gareth E. Rees

M

--


Sarah Jane Sloane

F

Colorado State


Sarah Sparkes

F

London


Angela Voss

F

Exeter (England)

xviii

Melvyn J. Willin

M

--

1.

-----------------------------------------------------------

I. Epistemologies

1. Haunted Culture

Christopher Partridge

39-49

p. 40 "a spectre is haunting Europe ..."

"hauntology replaces its near homonym ontology; it subverts the priority of being and presence; it undermines the .... certainties of

modernity with

{read "materialist atheism", not "modernity"}

the figure of the ghost as

{the figure of theistic spiritual communism}

that which is neither present nor absent

{continuously actually (that is, transcendentally) praesent, but ostensibly (that is, according to the fallacious metaphysic of capitalist-imposed materialism) absent}

neither deceased nor living (Derrida 1994 [1993]:51)."

{such spectres dominating the Antara-bhava, the realm wherein souls of the dead praepare to return into a forthcoming incarnation}

Derrida 1994 [1993] = J. Derrida (transl. by P. Kamuf) : Spectres of Marx. London : Routledge.

p. 40 alternative reality

"The late-modern mind is, if not

post-secular,

{post-atheist, post-materialist, post-capitalist}

certainly haunted by the feeling that reality is not ...

as privileged discourses in the West

{Such "privileged discourses" are those favored by capitalist-imposed materialist metaphysic.}

have taught us to think.

{as capitalist-stooges have tricked their dupes into imagining}

There is a feeling, not far from the surface, that

the rejected discourses of folklore

{of antique popular (and transmitted from primitive communism) religions antedating Christianity, and surviving under deep cover amongst those who despise ruling-class-imposed imposter-religions}

contain more than a nugget of truth. Indeed, it was for this reason that Antonio Gramsci insisted that folklore 'must be considered ... something which is very serious and must be taken seriously' (1985:191). Folklore, along with its easy acceptance of the paranormal, is so central to human culture, so much a part of what is considered to be 'common sense', that

its political significance should not be underestimated."

{Its potential for instigating popular insurrection against the capitalist-class is to be seriously considered (by dedicated anarchist-communists).}

Gramsci 1985 = Antonio Gramsci (transl. by W. Boelhower) : Selections from Cultural Writings. Cambridge (MA) : Harvard Univ Pr.

pp. 40-2 the shift towards experiential spirituality

p. 40

"Key to understanding the persistence of the paranormal ... is the well-documented shift from 'religion' to 'spirituality' ... . We might, for example, consider the ... turn away from deference to traditional sources of authority and an embracing of personal experience ... .

p. 41

Again, it is not insignificant that Western modernity has been shaped by ... Easternisation (Campbell 2007 ...), particularly evident in Theosophical currents, ... also rooted in ... the paranormal (Rothstein and Hammer, 2103 [sic : read "2013"]). ... The point is that, crucially, the subjective turn situates ... an openness to the ... supernatural, a climate conducive to ... the paranormal, ... extending the agency of ... psi-

p. 42

power, telepathy, astral projection ..., mediumship, channeling".

Campbell 2007 = C. Campbell : The Easternization of the West. Boulder (CO) : Paradigm Publ.

Rothstein & Hammer 2013 = M. Rothstein & O. Hammer (edd.) : Handbook of the Theosophical Current. Leiden : Brill.

p. 42 transformation to post-materialist values

"the haunted culture of late modernity goes some way to confirming that the paranormal is ... 'common sense' and, as such, 'something which ... must be taken seriously' (Gramsci 1985:191). ... we might note Ronald Inglehart's thesis that

the affluence of post-industrial societies created a situation ... being transformed from materialist values ... to post-materialist values ... (... Inglehart and Abrahamson 1999).

{"Post-industrial" societies is jargon for those wherein industrial workers are being displaced by automatic machines; a situation where so-called "affluence" (namely, minimum subsistence) of the former working-class is maintained solely by a dole-system of public-assistance (relief-payments) which the capitalist class is willing to pay in order to stave off (temporarily) a forthcoming popular communist insurrection. [written July 28 2014]}

Such post-materialist values provide fertile ground for belief in the paranormal and commitment to occult ideas, the ... effect of which is ... liberation through the acquisition of illuminated knowledge (gnosis) ... in relation to the cosmos.

In other words, ... our basic needs are catered for, we have time ... to explore paranormal phenomena, and to develop latent psychic abilities.

{The formerly working- (having by now become leisure-)class's urgency "to develop latent psychic abilities" is due to its intuitive realization that such psychic abilities will be needed when the capitalist class shall at length withdraw its temporary subsidizing of a permanently-laid-off working-class (with "our basic needs" no longer "catered for", and the prospect of mass-starving-to-death starkly praesented), resultant in the forthcoming final battle of the class-war. [written July 28 2014]}

We can think of this in terms of the construction of 'lifeworlds', in the sense that Ju:rgen Habermas uses that term ... (1987:113-98). The paranormal appears to be a component of post-industrial lifeworlds. It is simply taken for granted. ... We are haunted by the possibility of the impossible. Overshadowed by death, overlaid with memories of those who have gone before us, informed by the narratives of occulture ..., our individual lifeworlds are often palimpsests of the paranormal (see Nelson 2001, 2012)."

Inglehart & Abrahamson 1999 = R. Inglehart & P. R. Abrahamson "Measuring Postmaterialism". AMER POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 93:885-77.

Habermas 1987 = J. Habermas : The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 2, transl by T. McCarthy. London : Polity Pr.

Nelson 2001 = Victoria Nelson : The Secret Life of Puppets. Cambridge (MA) : Harvard Univ Pr. http://www.eaas.eu/publications/book-reviews/victoria-nelson-the-secret-life-of-puppets & http://www.esoteric.msu.eu/en/VolumeV/Reviews/NelsonReview.html

Nelson 2012 = Victoria Nelson : Gothicka. Cambridge (MA) : Harvard Univ Pr.

http://www.quarterlywest.utah.edu/iss_76/iss_76_victorianelson.html & http://jprstudies.org/2014/02/review-gothicka-vampire-heroes-human-gods-and-the-new-supernaturalby-victoria-nelson/ & http://makemag.com/review-gothicka-by-victoria-nelson/

p. 43 shift toward paranormal religion

"Generation Y (born between 1982 and 2000) ... has become increasingly alienated from traditional religiosity ... . As Peter Brierley has shown of church attendance in the UK, '... the biggest shift age-wise in the church ... was the huge decline in numbers of young people in the 1990s' (2006:112).

Influenced far more by popular culture ..., there has, again been a shift away from

the external, authoritarian aspects of religion

{Religion (usually Christianity) imposed by that which is external (extraneous) to the [former] working-class, namely by the authoritarian (despotic) government forced upon the [former] working-class by the capitalist-class.}

and towards ... the development of an interest in the paranormal, from UFOs, ghosts ... to psychic energy ... and astral projection. ... Again, the fact that the paranormal is central to cultura popularis, the culture 'belonging to the people' (Williams 1988:236), that which is 'common sense', is the key to its persistence in late-modern societies."

Brierley 2006 = P. Brierley : Pulling Out ... of Churchgoing. London.

Williams 1988 = W. Williams : Keywords. London : Fontana.

pp. 44-5 contemporary re-enchantment of culture

p. 44

"For ... the factual claims made ... in reality television series such as Ghost Hunters and Most Haunted ..., popular oc/culture provides an enchanted 'affective space' ... . For the scholar of religion this is ... important, in that not only is folklore and belief in the paranormal taken seriously, but popular culture also becomes a significant ... agent of contemporary enchantment (see Eliade 1976:47-68 ...). ... One need only look at the history of mediumship, which now includes the channelling of alien intelligences (Partridge, forthcoming), to begin to understand the creative trajectories" {scil., of flying-saucers in piloted flight}.

p. 45

"to make sense of the processes of re-enchantment ... we need to think in terms of 'occulture' ... . While including ... the cultic milieu, occulture is ... concerned with particular ... systems of belief and spiritual practices ... and much more concerned with ... plausibility structures (Berger 1967)".

Eliade 1976 = Mircea Eliade : Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions. Univ of Chicago Pr.

Partridge forthcoming = Christopher Partridge : "Channelling Extraterrestrials". In :- Cathy Gutierrez (ed.) : Handbook of Channelling. Leiden : Brill.

Berger 1967 = P. L. Berger : The Sacred Canopy : Elements of a ... Theory of Religion. NY : Doubleday.

p. 46 everyday ordinariness of perennialist philosophy

"occultism per se, and particularly the latent subscription to paranormal ideas, is largely ordinary and everyday (see Wooffitt 1992). ... Occulture, of course, is perennial."

Wooffitt 1992 = R. Wooffitt : Telling Tales of the Unexpected. Hemel Hempstead : Harvester Wheatsheaf.

p. 46 supernaturalism in literature of the Church

[quoted from Thomas 1971, p. 28] "By the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Lives of the Saints ... related the miraculous achievements of holy men, ... how they could prophesy the future, control the weather, provide protection against fire and flood, magically transport heavy objects, and bring relief to the sick."

Thomas 1971 = Keith Thomas : Religion and the Decline of Magic : ... Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century England. NY : Scribner.

p. 47 eroticized sexuality in contemporary occulture [the Gothic]

[quoted from Porter 1999, pp. 249-50] "sworn to the Devil, ghosts, spectres, sorcerers and witches, a flirting with the weird, the uncanny, the bizarre, with sado-masochistic sexuality ... . Supernatural elements like spectralization triggered new sexual frissons; the old demonological themes of possession, incubi and succubi were erotericized."

Porter 1999 = Roy Porter : "Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment, Romantic and Liberal Thought". In :- Bengt Ankarloo & Stuart Clark (edd.) : Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Vol. 5 : The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. London : Athone Pr; Philadelphia : Umiv of PA. pp. 191-274.

p. 48 spiritism and the paranormal achieve greater popularity during times of social oppression and of social hardship

"experiences of the unseen, endowment with occult gifts, and the gnostic ability to interpret the arcane are empowering. This is particularly important in times of hardship.

{For those suffering hardship, connection with the arcane is understood to be a means (and perhaps the only means available) for relieving themselves of such hardship.}

The disenfranchised, the unemployed, ... acquire the ability ... to make sense of their world.

{They begin to consider the fact that they have been disenfranchised, and deprived of a livelihood, by a ruling-class (usually understood to be the capitalist -class), and thus in this way begin to realize the only only sensible course of action for themselves is to overthrow that ruling-class.}

They perceive that they are able to influence the course of events ... and the wider world in ways others cannot. ...

{The course of events which they would seek to influence (avert) is their being oppressed by the capitalist-class; the "ways others cannot" employ are obtaining from supernatural worlds forceful means of overthrowing the capitalist-class.}

For example, Alex Owen's ([1989]) discussion of ... Spiritualism and power in the oppressive atmosphere of Victorian England helps us to understand the significance of the paranormal in this respect.

Likewise, it is no {haphazard} coincidence that, during ... the First and Second World Wars ... there was a significant spike of interest in Spiritualism and the occult (see Hazelgrove 2000 ...)."

{In times of hardship brought about by warfare instigated by the capitalist-class (usually intended to distract the workers from organizing anti-capitalist labor-unions), the working-class will tend to appeal more to occult (anti-Christian) Otherworldly forces to defend them against the vicious machinations of the class-enemy.}

Owen 1989 = Alex Owen : The Darkened Room : ... Spiritualism in Victorian England. Univ of Chicago Pr.

Hazelgrove 2000 = J. Hazelgrove : Spiritualism and British Society between the Wars. Manchester Univ Pr.

-----------------------------------------------------------

Olu Jenzen & Sally R. Munt (editrices) : The Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures. Ashgate Publ Ltd, Farnham (Surrey), 2013.