Handbook of Contemporary Animism, 37

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37.

Fae:rie in Hypermodernity

Patrick Curry

468-78


p. 468 the 3 roads to as many praeternatural destinations

quoted from Thomas the Rhymer (Child 1904, I:323-4)

Latin / Hellenic

Samskr.ta

"yon narrow road, So thick beset wi' thorns and briars ... is the path of righteousness ... .

caelum / ouranos

svarga

And ... that braid braid road, ... across yon lillie leven ... is the path of wickedness ... .

inferno / hai:des

naraka

And ... that bonny road, Which winds about the fernie brae ... is the road to fair Elfland".

limbo / paradeisos

tala

Child 1904 = Francis James Child (ed. by Helen [Child] Sargent & George Lyman Kittredge) : The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. 5 voll. Boston & New York : Houghton, Mifflin and Co. (reprinted 1965 NY : Cooper Square Publ)


p. 469 wondrement (i.e., awe)

"Tolkien ... "On Fairy-Stories ([1964] ...) ... defines "the primal desire at the heart of Fae:rie" as "the realization ... of imagined wonder". Realization, that is, in the sense ... of realizing that someone or something is wondrous, and

their wonder becoming real.

{the recognizer (of the wondrous person or site) having such recognition, furthermore (at least in the narrative), confirmed by miraculous apparition of the wondrously divine person or by mystic-visionarily observed events occurring at the wondrously divine site}

The contrast-class is given as magic, defined as "... a technique ... in this world ..."

{but (at least putatively) the term /this world/ being taken to include all that is accessible while living : namely, not only in the waking-state, but also in trancing, in dreaming, etc.}

(ibid.:18, 49-50). Following this lead, then, I take

wonder{ment} to be the hallmark, and the most important one, of enchantment;

{awe to mark, par excellence the ValHALLa-HALLmark of the Valakhilya (as described in the Puran.a-s etc.) siddhi-enchantment}

and will its distinguishing contrary."

{"love under will -- the magical formula of the Aeon of Horus given by Nuit in Liber AL vel Legis. Through this union, the Holy Guardian Angel consumes the life and substance of the natural soul or ka." (EWMPh, p. 118).}

EWMPh = Oliver St. John & Sophie di Jorio : The Ending of the Words : Magical Philosophy of Aleister Crowley. 2nd edn. OrdoAstri, 2014. https://books.google.com/books?id=zMuAh-uK6NEC&pg=PA118&lpg=PA118&dq=


{The magician's "will" hath its origin in, and is directed by, one's Holy Guardian Angel, at the command of the 9 Choirs of Angels abiding in the supernal planes. /Holy Guardian Angel/ is a term "used by Iamblichus {Iamblikhos} in his De Mysteriis for ... the Augoeides ("... from {the neutre word (G-EL, q.v.)} Augos, meaning "morning light")" (EWMPh, p. 118). According to Iamblikhos, the augoeides is "not a portion of the human mind, but an intelligence separate from ourselves : ... presiding over, ... transcending the human soul." (A&AIJ); and identified by Crowley as UD, the Sumerian name for the Sun (Ut[u] in Akkadian) -- by way of /UDgitha/ as 'chanting of the Saman-Veda' [where /saman/ is the word pronounced /s^aman/ (shaman) in Manchu].}

GE-L = Liddel & Scott : A Greek-English Lexicon. s.v. "augos-". http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dau%29%3Dgos

s.v. "augoeides". 'of the nature of light' (designation of /pneumat-/ 'spirit' : citing Iamb. Myst. 5:10; 3:11 -- but 'luminous', of /okhma/ 'brooch-fastened garment' [i.e., the soul], in Procl. in Ti. 2:81D) http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dau%29goeidh%2Fs

A&AIJ = J. Daniel Gunther : The Angel & The Abyss : the Inward Journey, Books II & III. Newburyport : Nicolas-Hays Inc, 2014. http://www.worldcat.org/title/angel-the-abyss-the-inward-journey-books-ii-iii/oclc/890982617/viewport


pp. 469-70 enchantment

p. 469

"Max Weber ... defines enchantment as "concrete magic". In other words, enchantment is always both material and spiritual, precise and mysterious, limited and unfathomable."

p. 470

"Emboldened by Sam Gamgee's description of Tolkien's exemplar of enchantment, Lotho`rien -- "I feel as if I was {were, am} inside a song" ([1954-5] ...:369) -- I interpret this to mean the experience of finding oneself in a song (a song one hears, or perhaps even that one is singing) and, by extension, a story of any kind."

Tolkien 1954-5 = John Ronald Reuel Tolkien : The Lord of the Rings. London : George Allen & Unwin. (reprinted 1965 by Houghton Mifflin, Boston; 1991 by HarperCollins; etc.)


p. 470 /Faye:rie/

"Robert Bringhurst (2007:248) offers a different etymology for Fae:rie ..., one derived from the Greek phe^res, meaning "creatures of the wild", and sister to Latin ferus, which gave rise to ... fierce {i.e., to the word /fierce/}. ...

This understanding resonates ... that enchantment is wild ... . As Bringhurst (1995:15) remarks ..., "In North America we call this world ... the Wild.""

Bringhurst 2007 = Robert Bringhurst : "The Art of Alice Kane". In his Everywhere Being is Dancing. Kentville : Gaspereau Pr. pp. 243-50.

Bringhurst 1995 = Robert Bringhurst : "Introduction". In :- Alice Kane (ed. by Sean Kane) : The Dreamer Awakes. Peterborough (ON) : Broadview Pr. pp. 11-18. http://www.worldcat.org/title/dreamer-awakes/oclc/31172996/viewport [This is a compilation of accounts of benefits granted to individual mortals (always in their dreams -- "the person who is to receive the gift falls asleep at some location not ordinarily frequented by humans" (article "fairies" in LI, p. 206b)) by fae:ry-folk (who evidently abide primarily in the dream-universe -- as for "deenee shee ["daoine sidhe"] (fairy people) ... In dreams we go amongst them" ("TF") --, though they also attend, in the waking-universe, to bemushroomed rings (consuming roots of dead trees) commemorative of the lightning-struck [to be viewed in the Renaissance tarock/tarocchia card] Tower of Kronos situated in the paradise-isle Elusion of the Peukinoi off the coast of Moisia (and thus nigh Tomoi whereto Ovidius was exiled in the reign of Augustus).]

{"Homer, Pindar and other early poets call the satyrs and centaurs ... phe^res" (Bringhurst 1995, p. 16). [Goat-bodied Saturoi and horse-bodied Kentauroi are the divine countreparts of herbivore mammals, i.e., their divine doubles, the fravas^i (eidola) of herbivores.] {An etymology (as, in Bringhurst 1995, p. 16, fn. 1) would regard /pher/ (Aiolian) and /ther/ (Attic) as dialect-variants of the same Hellenic word; this would imply (as, with Pokorny in, e.g., The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language) a proto-Hellenic */ghwer-/; with [perhaps] Latin /ferus/ 'wild beast' likewise from */ghwero-/. The characteristicly tinkling fae:ry-music is attested in the reduplicated Skt forms (S-ED) /GHARGHARya/ "small bell" (Gal.) and /GHARGHARa/ "girdle of small bells or tinkling ornaments worn by women" (Bhojapr. 215). (Cf. the tinkling metallic ornaments typically worn by Siberian shamans during public performances.) In Skt, there is also /GHR.ta/ 'ghee'; which is the froth-residue of molten butter, somewhat similar to "slag" (2nd of the Old Norwegian runes -- S&E, p. 55; "NU-R", pp. 109-10 & passim) as the "brittle" ("NU-R", pp. 113, wherefor the "old flux was sand", p. 115, constituting glass, also brittle) froth of molten ore [slung by gauntleted To`rr, who "flung the molten lump, which penetrated the pillar" ("To`rs-dra`pa" = Ska`lds-kapar-ma`l 26) -- apparently producing what is known in Irish ritual as a "holed pillar" for ("MGST", p. 120) the "Teltown marriage" (DCM, s.v. "Tailtiu", p. 350a), as well as for marriage in Orkney ("RSMI", p. 80)].}

{"Aurochs" (in the Old English Rune-Poem -- "NU-R", p. 109) as emitter of "sparks" (mentioned in the Icelandic -- "NU-R", p. 113-15) is the Scandinavian mythic aequivalent to the Pauran.ik cow-goddess emitting thundrebolt-deities from the pores of her skin.}

LI = Da`ithi` O` hO`ga`in : The Lore of Ireland. Boydell Pr, Woodbridge (Suffolk), 2006.

"TF" = "The Trooping Fairies", in :- William Butler Yeats (compiler) : Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry. The Walter Scott Publishing Co., London & Felling-On-Tyne. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33887/33887-h/33887-h.htm

S-ED = Monier Monier-Williams : Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1899.

S&E = Chris Travers : The Serpent and the Eagle : an Introduction to the Elder Runic Tradition. 2008. https://books.google.com/books?id=ucUlDGW-W80C&pg=PA55&lpg=PA55&dq=

Ska`lds-kapar-ma`l 26 https://notendur.hi.is/eybjorn/ugm/meter/ssprose.html

"NU-R" = Inmaculada Senra Silva : "Names of the u-Rune". FUTHARK : INTERNAT J OF RUNIC STUDIES 1 (2010):109–22. http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:381136/FULLTEXT01.pdf

"MGST" = Thomas Johnson Westropp : "Marriages of the Gods at the Sanctuary of Tailltiu". FOLK-LORE XXXI (1920):109-41. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Folk-Lore/Volume_31/The_Marriages_of_the_Gods_at_the_Sanctuary_of_Tailltiu

DCM = James MacKillop : Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford Univ Pr, 1998.

"RSMI" = W. G. Wood-Martin : "Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland". J OF THE ROYAL SOC OF ANTIQUARIES OF IRELAND 4th ser.,VIII (1889):51-158. http://archive.org/stream/journalofroyalso18royauoft/journalofroyalso18royauoft_djvu.txt


p. 474 public services could be improved while lowering taxes

"Countless polls have confirmed that many, perhaps most[,] voters simultaneously support lower taxes and better public services."

{This could, of course, very readily be immediately accomplished, simply by eliminating the military budget.}


p. 474 Christianity (particularly Episcopalianism) as a sociological gaol : Christian (particularly Episcopalian) clergy as sociological gaolers

"in Lauren Miller's book ... Tolkien asks Lewis rhetorically,

"What class of men would you expect to be most preoccupied with, and most hostile to, the idea of escape?" The answer is, of course, jailers {gaolers}.

[p. 477, n. 15 : "Cf. Tolkien ([1964] ...:56)."]

Quite right too, but then she adds : "I, too, longed for escape, but as I saw it, Christianity was one of the jailers" (L. Miller 2008:101; emphasis added)."

{"This ... is ... Tolkien's ... '... Great Escape : the Escape from Death ... which might be called the genuine escapist, or ... fugitive spirit' (59)." ("JRRT&LR", p. 159) -- exoteric Christianity, how-be-it, is a hindrance to such Escape.}

Tolkien 1964 = John Ronald Reuel Tolkien : "On Fairy-Stories". In his Tree and Leaf. London : Allen & Unwin. pp. 9-73. (reprinted 1988 London : Unwin Hyman) http://www.rivendellcommunity.org/Formation/Tolkien_On_Fairy_Stories.pdf

L. Miller 2008 = Lauren Miller : The Magician's Book : a Skeptic's Adventures in Narnia. NY : Little, Brown & Co.

"JRRT&LR" = Colin N. Manlove : "J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973) and The Lord of the Rings". In his Modern Fantasy : Five Studies. Cambridge Univ Pr, 1975. pp. 152-206.

https://books.google.com/books?id=Cgw4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA159&lpg=PA159&dq=


p. 474 to become invisible

"There ... of this dialogue ... on Michael Ward ... [2008] ... The third road, as usual, was rendered invisible."

{FMTM, p. 21 "The Rings fashioned by Sauron for "mortal men" are doubly escapist. They convey longevity and invisibility. ...

[FMTM, p. 22] And if he often uses the Ring to make himself invisible, he fades : he becomes in the end invisible permanently."}

Ward 2008 = Michael Ward : Planet Narnia : the Seven Heavens in the Imagination of C. S. Lewis. Oxford Univ Pr.

FMTM = Chris Walsh : "From Mind to Mind": Robert Browning and J.R.R. Tolkien. Chester Academic Pr, 2007. https://books.google.com/books?id=9llIqICvslQC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=


p. 475 animal-daimones

"Pullman's own ... world is ... noticeably populated with visible animal daemons, biological entities with wheels, and so on."

{"Everyone has a daemon or animal spirit : when you are young, the daemon keeps changing shape; as you get older your daemon settles into a constant form. The daemons are the single most brilliant idea in the books. Pullman got the idea from paintings by Leonardo da Vinci ("The Lady with the Ermine"), Holbein ("The Lady and the Squirrel") and Tiepolo ("Young Woman with a Macaw"), where there seems to be a psychological {i.e., soul-based} link between the person and the creature." ("PhPDA")}

{A sorcerer's shape-shifting animal-countrepart is the /nawal (nagual)/; the stable animal-double of all persons is the /tonal/.}

"PhPDA" = "Philip Pullman's Dark Arts". INTELLIGENT LIFE magazine, December 2007. http://moreintelligentlife.com/story/an-interview-with-philip-pullman?page=full

{Just as the nagual and tonal figures are Meso-American, so are the wheeled animals; indeed, these must have been most sacred idols, for wheels were not allowed for saecular vehicles anywhere in Meso-America. Perhaps the mythic self-propelled wheeled tripods manufactured by Hephaistos are related.}


pp. 475-6 instances of ostensible critics Tolkien's enchantment-schemata

p. 475

"When Miller was researching her book, Pullman recommended a book by John Goldthwaite (1996), ... who apparently shares Pullman's ... extraordinary grounds that


"... a Secondary World {Limbo?!}, after all, is in effect a declaration that God ... is deficient."" [p. 477, n. 18 : "Quoted by Miller (2005)."]

{If the "Secondary World" be Limbo (the Paradise inhabited, according to Dante, by pagan philosophers), then the Qo^mah ('Deity') of the TNaK must be truly accounted [because "deficient"] as inferior to the Cosmic Intellect of the Neo-Platonists.}

p. 476

"The poet Michael Longley once observed ... that "when you capture something with precision, you also release its mysterious aura".


"You don't get the the mystery," he added, "without the precision." ...

[p. 478, n. 19 : "Quoted in The Irish Times (11 January 1992)."]


His Dark Materials starts with a girl in a cupboard in a very particular room, overhearing a ... conversation in a richly ... detailed parallel Oxford. It culminates with ... denunciations of the Church, and Will and Lyra's ... separation.

{By Philip Pullman & Lucy Hughes-Hallett, His Dark Materials is a trilogy of 3 novels : "Northern Light", the "Subtle Knife", and the "Amber Spyglass". ""Northern Lights" introduces Lyra, an orphan, who lives in a parallel universe in which science, theology and magic are entwined. ... In "The Subtle Knife" she is joined on her journey by Will, a boy who possesses a knife that can cut windows between worlds. As Lyra learns ... her prophesied destiny, the two young people are caught up in ... celestial powers ... across many worlds" ("ChHBHDM").}


Pullman seems ... as Douglass Parker said of Edmund Wilson, another ... critic of Tolkien's work ... (Parker 1956-7:608)."

Goldthwaite 1996 = John Goldthwaite : The Natural History of Make-Believe : a Guide to the Principal Works of Britain, Europe and America. Oxford Univ Pr.

L. Miller 2005 = Lauren Miller : "The Jesus Symbol, the Witch, and the Wardrobe". SALON (7 December). http://salon.com/2005/12/07/narnia_3/

"ChHBHDM" = "Church House Bookshop His Dark Materials". http://www.chbookshop.co.uk/books/9781841593425/his-dark-materials

Parker 1956-7 = Douglass Parker : "Hwaet We Holbytla ...". HUDSON REVIEW 9.4:598-609.


{In the "Amber Spyglass", "The Authority dies ... . ... In the Adamant Tower, the angel Xaphania quite coolly informs Marisa Coulter about the truth of The Authority. He is not the Creator at all, simply the first angel to come into being. The Authority then claimed to have been the Creator of everything" ("ID"). This is the mythic function of the Gnostic Demiourgos, indicating that Pullman is preaching the Gnostic theology, and is attempting to proselytize Great Britain on behalf of such (praesumably some brand of Martinism -- though this is not mentioned outright, perhaps on account of the Francophobia praevalent in Britain). The so-called "Magisterium" must be the sublunary domain of the Demiourgos, and so /Xaphania/ may be an abbreviation of /Xeno-phania/, the manifestation of the 'Foreign (i.e., Alien) God', another typical Gnostic feature. (Omission of any mention of Christ would, at least, shew that the theology is not specifically Markionite, which is very Christocentric.)}

"ID" = "The Identity of God". http://www.hisdarkmaterials.org/opinion/op-eds/the-identity-of-god


p. 477 glamour as power-knowledge

"I have already suggested "glamour" (Curry 1999) ... is one of the chief tools in the armoury of magic, in Tolkien's sense of power-knowledge.

It bears the same relationship to enchantment as the Ringwraiths of Tolkien's world, who ... cannot die -- what he called

"endless serial living" ([1964] ...:62) -- do {due?} to

{"Now 'infinite temporal duration' is clearly identical with what Tolkien calls 'limitless serial longevity' or 'endless serial living'" ("RBS").}

genuine immortality as defined by ... timelessness".

{evidently intended fundamentally as the Neo-Platonic aeternality (Zarathustrian /Zrvan akarana/) as immutability of the sempiternal eidola (Zarathustrian /fravas^i/)}

Curry 1999 = Patrick Curry : "Magic vs. Enchantment". J OF CONTEMPORARY RELIGION 14.3:401-12.

"RBS" = Patrick Curry : "Review of The Broken Scythe: Death and Immortality in the Works of J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Roberto Arduini and Claudio A. Testi (Zurich and Jena: Walking Tree Books, 2012)". http://review.walking-tree.org/?book=cormare26&published_in=endore&rev_lang=en&lang=en


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Graham Harvey (ed.) : Handbook of Contemporary Animism. Acumen Publ, Durham; ISD, Bristol, 2013.