Lux in Tenebris, 14 

 

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14

Symbology of Hermeticism in in Julius Evola

Hans Thomas Hakl

334-362

based on :- Julius Evola (transl. from the Italian by E. E. Rehmus) : The Hermetic Tradition : Symbols And Teachings Of The Royal Art. Rochester, Vt. : Inner Traditions, 1994. (reprint : Simon & Schuster) https://books.google.com/books?id=fTRcDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT54&lpg=PT54&dq= 

 

p. 334 genuinely transcendent symbols

"The Italian philosopher and esotericist Julius Evola (1898-1974) ... assigns ... transcendent quality to the symbol ... : the basis of a "genuine", i.e., sacred, symbol ... concerned ... with the authentic perception or the interior or superior aspect of cosmic forces. ... According to Evola, one is essentially dealing here with the genuine "vision" of something that originates in the transcendent order of being,

but which is then projected onto the level of our earthly, sensory world; because of this, the symbol can sometimes assume fantastical forms."

{The immaterial divine worlds may appear to be "earthly" (as in ordinary dreaming) and "sensory" (all manner of sense-perceptions being commonplace in the divine worlds); but also to be phantastic, for, those worlds' divine denizens are themselves phantoms of transcendent typologies.}

 

{A genuinely transcendent symbol is an identificatory emblem (such as, an uttered or written password or name) which hath been furnished, to a mortal, by transcendent immortals, such symbol to be employed by such mortal to summon the attention of (in the case of a name), or to authenticate permission to submit petition to (in the case of a password), the appropriate divine entity (who may be anyone -- from an emergency-case divine rescuer, to a routine spirit-guide) authorized (by the appropriate committee of divine entities) to act on behalf of said mortal.}

 

pp. 333-4 "integral Tradition" : "transcendent unity of all religions"

p. 333

"Rather, this so-called integral Tradition sees itself as a completely universal,

{Such Italian-designated "integral Tradition ... beyond humanity, country and history" is more commonly designated "the Perennial Philosophy" (named for Roman goddess Anna Perenna).}

p. 334

thoroughly metaphysical spiritual attitude whose origin is in the transcendental ..., i.e., "divine" ground ... beyond humanity, country and history."

 

"It is nevertheless still possible to reconstruct this primordial tradition today and speak, with Frithjof Schuon (1907-1998), of the 'transcendent unity of all religions' ... .

{The transcendent unity of all religions is based in these religions' all being derived from instructions provided to mortal humans by immortal divine entities (as authorized by their respective divine committees) abiding in immaterial divine worlds, reached by mortals -- primarily via the "gaps between the consciousness-states", viz., via hypn-agogic and hypno-pompic interludes.}

 

This naturally demands a corresponding spiritual guidance as well as sensitivity."

{The most appropriate and instructive of spiritual guides are the divine entities appearing amid one's dreaming, so as (after proving that their world is the genuine dream-world, distinct and different from the meaningless, purposeless material world) to expound how their divine dream-world is truly the source of all accurate metaphysical knowledge and understanding.}

 

{In one's dreaming, the intellective sensitivity can arise to its most intensive level of devotion and of commitment : as I have recently become more fully aware, thanks to the aid of the two (ingested together) psychedelic herb-drugs damiana and anandamide, in addition to the usual Silene capensis. [written April 2019]}

 

pp. 334, 337 Evola, Gue'non, and Reghini

p. 334

"the so-called Traditional worldview of Evola ... Tradition, which was foundational for Evola, rests upon that of Rene' Gue'non (1886-1951)."

p. 337

"In the first volume of the writings of the Ur Group, the symbol is granted its own chapter on the basis of the magical path ... not ... from Evola, but

 

from Arturo Reghini (1878-1946), who, next to Gue'non, was his most significant mentor."

[fn. 13 "Evola thanks Reghini expressly ... in his spiritual autobiography, Il cammino del cinabro, 107 (The Path of Cinnabar, 2009), where he passes in review the origins and motivations of his most significant works."]

Evola 2009 = Julius Evola : The Path of Cinnabar : an Intellectual Biography. London : Integral Traditions Publ.

 

pp. 337-8 litteral & metaphorical significances of symbols

p. 337

"Reghini, who wrote in Ur under the pseudonym Pietro Negri, interprets the word "Symbol" ... . In ancient Greek,

p. 338

the word sym-ballo has the meaning 'I ... throw together' and stands in opposition to dia-ballo 'I ... throw apart'. ...

 

And with Dante Alighieri, Reghini distinguishes between the literal, allegorical, moral and finally anagogic sense of symbols. The anagogic sense (from Greek anagoge, 'that which ... leads up') is considered the highest and most complete sense ... because it points to the symbol's 'transcendent content'."

 

pp. 339-41 mysteriosophy of relationship of microcosm to macrocosm, within transformative esoteric experience

p. 339

"The goal of this system is to enable the ascertainment and experience of [according to H. T. Hansen/Hakl] an animated, 'sacred organism, replete with living powers, in which everything is marvelously interwoven and intercommunicating. Man stands in the middle as microcosm ... -- as above, so

p. 340

below (in the words of the Emerald Tablet). Hence the symbolic language of alchemy, as an expression of this universal system, must also have correspondences in other mysteriosophic realms and therefore can serve as a universal key to these realms. ...' ... Significantly, these perceptions ... approach a "completely" lived esoteric experience that possesses a transformative character. ...

p. 341

In order to explicate this, Evola cites the Buddhist expression that our body ... contains the entire world ... . 'Everything that the macrocosm possesses', affirms Olympiodorus the younger (c. 495-570), 'so does man possess'."

 

pp. 342-3 living spiritual reality of magical elements, which are only figuratively called by quasi-material terms in the writings by metaphysical alchemists

p. 342

"A further necessary premise is the realization that the idea of elements in Hermeticism concerns

 

"living" and spiritual realities, not the dead and "base" elements of modern science.

{The terminology of materialist "science" is employed merely figuratively, with the intent of attracting persons who read materialistic "scientific" litterature to contemplation of immaterial spiritual realities.}

 

This is why the {traditional metaphysically-oriented alchemical} texts call them

 

"our" water and

{deus Neptunus or theos Poseidon}

 

"our" fire,

{deus Volcanus or theos Hephaistos}

 

"our mercury"

{deus Mercurius or theos Hermes}

 

and not "that of the vulgar".

{not that of the materialist metallurgists}

 

In this respect, Evola cites (among others) Nicolas Flamel (c. 1330-c. 1418), who emphasizes that the elements {as intended by metaphysical alchemists}, out of which all things arise, 'are not those that emerge visibly before our eyes; rather, they are

 

those that become known through their effects."

{those Roman dei and Hellenic theoi who are known through their effects on the material world}

 

Hermeticism only deals with

 

the invisible, "magical" elements

{the invisible, magical dei and deae, theoi and theai}

 

known only to the "wise". ...

{These "wise" are, of course, covert pagans who have secretly retained the antient religion in concealed defiance of Christianity.}

 

Furthermore, 'who comprehend this by themselves will never be able to understand it through others ... '.

{Aspirants to this knowledge must discover it through their own spiritual experience, realizing that this experience is confirmed in pagan lore.}

 

This {metaphysical spiritual} science, believes Evola, will only be realized through

 

a 'storm of the spirit'. ...

{the thunderbolt, as wielded (contra Christianity) by deus Jupiter or by theos Zeus, if not by aes To`rr}

 

He does this, according to his own recommendation, by ... images. And images

p. 343

are there in abundance, as he has the entire symbolic world of the alchemists at his disposal. Around seven hundred original citations are treated in his book ... in the first edition ... ."

 

p. 343 spiritual realization through a panorama of multiple perspectives

"Through this panorama of multiple perspectives, one's awareness is able to ... easily grasp ... in a "meditative" way, without having to concentrate on a single path or approach; and then the realization suddenly flashes forth ... .

One has suddenly "encircled" the intrinsic meaning and immediately "grasped" it

{The encirclement accomplished is pluralistic, involving multiple perspectives witnessed from multiple points-of-view (maintained by several distinct metaphysics).}

without verbalizing the realization ...

{Any particular verbalization will be applicable only to a single perspective, confined to a single plane (or subplane)-of-existence.}

and so confining it to rational channels.

{Any single ratiocination will be applicable only to a single perspective, each perspective having a different postulate (or set of postulates).}

The realization, however, ... exists in a subtle way in the entire body-consciousness.

{Each each suks.ma kaya ('subtle body') -- whereof each person hath several (astral, mental, causal) -- hath its own mode for understanding, viz., in the perspective peculiar to its own plane (or subplane)-of-existence.} [written 10 April 2019]

And the object of exploration will not be apprehended solely by its "centre" but in a similar way by its "aura";

{In the several planes (or subplanes)-of-existence, the object's centre-of-significance can differ; but the object's connotations will never-the-less somewhat overlap.}

that is, by the multiplicity of the often unconscious associations with which it is bound.

{The associated significances may to some extent be "subconscious", which is to say, they are held in virtual abeyance by one's virtual spirit-guides who control one's activities (including one's mental processes) from behind-the-scenes of the conscious mind.} [written 10 April 2019]

This engenders an impression that can be understood in a much deeper and far more comprehensive manner."

{Such "impression" may likewise be instilled by one's virtual spirit-guides. Thereupon one's conscious mind may build, upon the foundation of such an "impression", the logical consequences within several metaphysics.}

 

pp. 343-4 magical attraction (to the eclectical metaphysics) consequential upon spiritual realization through a panorama of multiple perspectives

p. 343

"one also knows that objects impress themselves in our memory more deeply and enduringly through associations. Once one has

p. 344

understood ... in this way, that is, "in depth", it continues to have an effect, and

 

the associations, which are not only of a mental but also of an emotional or even "spiritual" nature,

{The associations which are mental are retained in the mental plane (mediated by the mental body); those which are emotional, in the astral plane (mediated by the astral body); and those which are "spiritual" (pertaining unto otherwordly ethics), in the causal plane (mediated by the causal body).} [written 10 April 2019]

 

can be preserved for quite some time. ...

{at the every least, throughout the remainder of that particular lifespan; with adequate piety, through many lifespans}

 

Moreover, there is apparently a certain "magical attraction" inherent to this process that can actually have an "addictive" effect on the practitioner."

{Said "magical attraction" is, firstly-and-foremostly, toward the composite nature of the eclectical metaphysics which produced the potentiality for the broadness of the panorama of multiple perspectives. It "addictive" effect is an eagerness to continuate one's personal devotion to such eclectical metaphysics.}

 

pp. 344-5 praeternatural oneness certified in Hermetic ensigillation

p. 344

"Evola begins with ... 'unity', ... the 'first principle of the hermetic doctrine'. The fundamental formula of unity is already present in the Chrysopoeia of Kleopatra :

 

'one is all' (hen to pan). This is the all-unity,

{There is a uniform divine principle of accord, wherein divine agencies in the various Heavens certify one-another's investigational findings.}

 

which is also bound to ... the 'telesma, the father of all things ...' in the Emerald Tablet. {This image "Hermes Trismegistus in his Emerald Tablet called telesma. ... Hermes said, in the Emerald Tablet, “It is the cause, this, of all perfection of all things throughout the universe. ..."" ("MM&SS")} ...

{Hellenic \telesmat-\ 'certified copy, certificate' : etymon of French \talisman\. A talisman is a praeternaturally certified copy a divine amulet, the original whereof is ensconced in Heaven. By means of mutual certifications amongst divine committees of denizens of the various Heavens, praeternatural perfection is maintained throughout the various levels and regions of the Universes.}

p. 345

Evola then continues ... : 'This "all" ... sleeps in the depth of every being and unfolds itself .. through the ... multipicity of things and forms ... here below in time and space ... : it indicates the principle of ... the "hermetic sealing" ... . ...

 

Here transcendence is understood as a mode of being that is already contained in the "one thing". ...

{Transcendence beyond the material universe is certainly the mode of being immanent in the oneness of accord praevalent throughout the divine Universes.}

 

The "matter of the wise", which is also called their "stone", contains everything within it that we need ... .'

{The principle of universal concord, which is solid and enduring, containeth within itself a needful means of inducing universal goodwill, peace and prosperity.}

 

Evola thereby equates this primordial unity with the 'matter of the work ... of the wise' ... ."

\telesmat-\ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dte%2Flesma 

\talisman\ https://www.etymonline.com/word/talisman 

"MM&SS" = "Miracles, Magic and the Song of the Sun". https://aerochug.com/miracles-magic-and-the-song-of-the-sun/ 

 

{Certification of religious documents by means of an official sigillum ('seal-stamping') is prae-eminently a Taoist practice, but having antecedents in Akkadian and Sumerian practices.}

 

p. 346 BEYOND any opposition between between the material lower world and the spiritual upper world

"Evola emphasizes ... '... an understanding ... sub specie interioritatis ["i.e., from the point of view of interiority -- HTH"], that leads beyond the opposition between material and spiritual, between lower world and higher world'.

He then cites Dionysius Zacharias [in Salmon 1741, vol. 2, p. 523] :

'When we explain our matter spiritually, so is it true;

when we explain it in a corporeal sense, we do not lie;

when we call it heavenly, this is its true designation;

when we call it earthly, we speak with full precision'."

Salmon 1741 = William Salmon : Bibliothe`que des Philosophes Chimiques. Paris : Andre' Cailleau. 2nd Vol. of 4, 1740-1754.

 

p. 346 WITHDRAWAL from distinction between self and not-self

"The prima materia according to Evola ... corresponds -- extremely significantly -- to a completely distinct state of consciousness that appears after the laws of duality between "I" and "not-I" have been withdrawn. ... This state of consciousness is the proper one in which to conduct alche mical operations."

 

p. 346 mystical understanding of the phases of the alchemical work

"Evola summarizes the 'Great Work' of alchemy in three symbolic phases :

the nigredo -- the black work, which corresponds to the complete sealing off ... of the habitual corporeal ego, whose narrowness ... is broken ...;

next there is the albedo -- the white work -- which manifests in an opening up, and in the experience of light, which in fact remains passive ...; and

finally there follows the rubedo -- the red work -- in which the self-determining ... quality becomes activated in absolute freedom, which then enables the achievements to be "fixed"."

 

pp. 348-9 one's own several bodies, material and subtle

p. 348

"Taken together, Evola summarizes the quaternity of human principles as follows :

 

First, one finds ... the animal body ... . ...

p. 349

In the second case we have ... the so-called ... astral body, the Egyptian ka {KL}. ...

{Actually, this KL, in its abiding in the space of the material world, is thus demonstrated to be the aitheric body; whereas, the true astral body is for travelling in the astral world (a realm utterly different from the material world).}

 

Next comes ... the divine principle of the soul ... .

{personified in myth as thea Psukhe}

 

Finally, we have the intellectual mode of being ..., which ..., even though in and of itself beyond individuality (the atman {\a-tman\ 'toward self'} in Indian philosophy). It is aequivalent to the nous {\no[h]os\ 'mind'}), the transcendent-intellectual principle that is able to perceive the "eternal" ... ."

 

pp. 350-1 exaltation : alchemical DEIFICATION

p. 350

"The Hermetic objective is to ... form the 'transcendent' human, or as Cesare della Riviera expresses it, in order 'to shift the heroes to heaven by divine wisdom and to make them lords of the magical universe'. This corresponds precisely to what Gyo:rgy E. Szo:nyi [2004, pp. 34-7], in his book on John Dee (1527-1608), calls exaltatio. With this ... he comprehends 'a doctrine, according to which the human being -- witjh the assistance of certain techniques (including magic) -- is able to bring about a state in which it is possible for him to leave the body and seek coexistence with the godhead'. ... Attention need only be drawn to the fact that the deciphering of symbols by Cesare della Riviera is fundamentally similar to Dee's ... . It appears, however, that for della Riviera, the

p. 351

"practical" element of deificatio is more important; for he is primarily concerned with the spiritual "transformation of man."

Szo:nyi 2004 = Gyo:rgy E. Szo:nyi : John Dee's Occultism : Magical Exaltation through Powerful Signs. Albany (NY) : State Univ of NY Pr.

 

p. 351 Evola's interest in Cesare della Riviera's book

"the title of della Riviera's work, Il Mondo Magico degli Heroi, contains two words thayt must have drawn the particular interest of Evola : magico, 'magic' and heroi, 'heroes'. Evola saw the same final goal in 'high magic' that he found in alchemy ... -- namely : the reshaping of the earthly human into the transcendental 'god man' ... . ...

A year after the first edition of La tradizione ermetica in 1931, Evola also published an edition of Cesare della Riviera's main work in modernized Italian through the same publisher (Laterza, Bari) ... . ...

The significance of this book is also known in other circles. For instance, is forms the basis of the recent "occult" novel, The Forbidden Book, which ... is based upon the solid historical and esoteric research of Joscelyn Godwin."

Mina di Sospiro & Joscelyn Godwin : The Forbidden Book. 2012.

 

pp. 352-3 the Imaginal World, according to Henri Corbin

p. 352

"Henry Corbin (1903-1978) ... derives his symbology from S{.}ufism ... . ... Corbin's ... "imaginal world" (mundus imaginalis) ... represents a mesocosm or intermonde through which divine forces are able to world on our world. The imaginal world, according to Corbin, is ... a place where 'the spirit is corporealized and the body spiritualized' ... . As such, the mundus imaginalis represents the necessary binding link between this earthly realm and the transcendent ... . ... Yet Evola speaks only generally about the perception of powers on a subtle level that are then "concretized" on the earthly plane.

 

I must leave it therefore open as to whether this "subtle" plane is ultimately identical with Corbin's imaginal world. ...

{Whereas Evola's "perception of powers on a subtle level" can be either while entranced, or simply during earnest metaphysical contemplation; yet Corbin's mention of a distinct "world" would imply outright dreaming, or else definitely hypn-agogic and/or hypno-pompic states-of-awareness.}

p. 353

This epistemology is perhaps expressed most clearly by Plotinus (c. 204-270 CE) in his Enneads [1:6:9 -- Taylor 1994] :

 

'For he that behold must become akin to that which he beholds, and must, before he comes to this vision, be transformed into its likeness.

{Prior to divine entities's disclosure (in a dream or deep trance), to a mortal aspirant, of any vision of the nature of the divine world, such aspirant must have already become thoroughly dedicated and devoted to contemplating the metaphysics of such divine world, so that the aspirant's mind and ideals must be oriented toward it ("transformed into its likeness").}

 

Never could the eye have looked upon the sun if its had not become sun-like ... .

{One of the possible objects of divine vision is the divine sun itself (as witnessed in dreaming).}

 

Let each man first become god-like ..., if he would behold ... God.'"

{Whoever is aspiring to witness the activities of divine entities (including of one's own personal spirit-guide "daimon") must already have become thoroughly dedicated and devoted to contemplating the metaphysics of such divine entities.}

Taylor 1994 = Thomas Taylor (transl.) : Collected Writings of Plotinus.

 

{N.B. None of these sorts of statements by Evola, Jung, Eliade, or Plotinos, can in much accuracy be termed "expressed most clearly", on account of the fact that all these sorts of authors deliberately evade the pressing quaestion of whether, or to what extent, that which they are describing is divinely disclosed to mortals in trancings, in dreamings, in hypn-agogic or in hypno-pompic states, or during sleep-paralysis. In their aira, and to much extent even now, it would be somewhat risky publicly to hazard to recommend any praecise or definite mode of visiting divine worlds, for the very practical reason that such a recommendation could lead to official accusations of "insanity", with possible involuntary confinement to a political-state-owned "insane asylum" as a result.}

 

pp. 353-4 Quadrelli, Kremmerz, and Wirth; Bachofen

p. 353

"In the ... Ur group, next to Arturo Reghini, ... Ercole Quadrelli ... operated under the name Abraxa. Quadrelli also belonged to the magical group Fratellanza terapeutica e magica di Myriam of Giuliano Kremmerz (1861-1930), whose internal booklet, Fascicolo D, is likewise cited ... in The Hermetic Tradition. ...

p. 354

Jacopo da Coreglia [fn. 70 : "pseudonym"] additionally reveals that a Hermetically oriented priest, Father Francesco Oliva, who was impressed with Evola, provided him with the confidential documents from Myriam. ... .  

 

... the first chapter of Wirth's Le Symbolisme Herme'tique (first edition, 1909), which bears the title 'L'Ide'ographique alchimique', ... is recapitulated in Evola ..., following the same structural dynamic ... . The chapter 'Notions e'le'mentaires d'Herme'tisme is also perfectly encapsulated by Evola. ...

 

The methodology of ... Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887) has ... influenced Evola's ... "traditional method" quite heavily, too.  ... he [Evola] was the editor and translator of Bachofen's writings."

 

pp. 354-6 Carl Jung's and Mircea Eliade's lofty esteem for the writings by Julius Evola

p. 354

"Jung (1875-1961) himself was quite taken with the Tradizione Ermetica, calling it 'a magisterial portrayal of hermetic philosophy'."

p. 355

"Mircea Eliade ... had been in contact with Evola since he ["Eliade"] was quite young ... .

 

A ... study of the influences of the Traditionalists on Eliade ..., has been presented by the religious scholar{ess} Paola Pisi. What she points out in particular are the numerous parallels between Eliade's works, Alchimia Asiatica (1934) and Cosmologie si Alchimie Babiloniana (1937) on the one hand, and Evola's works on the other. ...

[fn. 75 "See Pisi [1998], 49 f. and 91 f. In 1999, Paola Pisi once again took up the question of Alchemy in Evola and Eliade ... . Moreover a ... article by Liviu Bordas ... has been published recently [2014], which investigates the early relationship of Evola and Eliade."]

 

Already in 1925, Evola had published an essay in the journal Bilychnis (which was also known to Eliade) in which he presented ... for the first time ... the so-called resurection body ... in the same sense as in Eliade's Alchimia Asiatica. Between 1927 and 1929, in the magazines Ur and Krur, which were edited by Evola and to which Eliade subscribed, one also finds further articles by Evola [fn. 77 "under the pseudonym Ea"] on alchemical themes. ...

p. 356

Eliade, too, only mentioned Evola's Hermetic Tradition for the first time in 1956 [fn. 83 "Thus, long after C. G. Jung's mention of this work in his Psychologie und Alchimie."], in his book Forgerons et Alchimistes, and there only parenthetically."

p. 356, fn. 84

"Evola is also mentioned in the footnotes [to Eliade's Forgerons et Alchimistes] (e.g., 132) and briefly in the text itself (119), where he is named alongside figures such as Alexander von Bernus, Fulcanelli or Euge`ne Cansiliet ... .  ... Cansiliet, the famous French alchemist (and editor of Fulcanelli) ... appears to have valued Evola's work. This is attested to by the fact that he personally sent Evola a copy of the work of Basilius Valentinus that he edited and annotated, Les douze clefs de la philosophie (Paris : Ed. du Minuit, 1956) ... ."

Pisi 1998 = Paola Pisi : 'I "tradizionalisti" e ... Eliade'. In :- Luciano Arcella, Paola Pisi, & Roberto Scagno (edd.) : Confronto con Mircea Eliade. Milan : Jaca Book.

Pisi 1999 = Paola Pisi : 'Evola, Eliade e l'alchimia'. In :- Gianfranco de Turris (ed.) : Studi evoliani. Roma : Fondazione J. Evola. pp. 62-92.

Bordas 2014 = Liviu Bordas : "Eliade's First Encounter with the Works of Evola". In :- Nicolae Babuts (ed.) : Mircea Eliade : Myth, Religion, and History. New Brunswick : Transaction Publ. pp. 113-60.

 

p. 357 exhibited by Maurizio Calvesi and by Piero di Vona : high praise for the writings by Julius Evola

"art historian and art critic Maurizio Calvesi, who was one of the first to investigate alchemy from an art historical perspective, underscores 'the originality and importance' of Evola's Tradizione Ermetica ... . ...

Academic research that places alchemy in an intellectual historical context, e.g., Wayne Shumaker's The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance : A Study in Intellectual Patterns, appears even later (1972). ...

Piero di Vona, ... Spinoza specialist, also emphasizes the significance of La Tradizione Ermetica, which he describes [fn. 89 "di Vona, Evola e l'alchimia dello spirito"] ... ."

 

p. 358 Elisabetta Valento on Julius Evola

"Evola ... in his youth ... was a leading collaborator in Italian Futurism and in particular Dadaism. In his paintings and poems, recurring alchemical symbols ... emerge.

These connections have been analyzed by Elisabetta Valento in her book, Homo faber : Julius Evola fra arte e alchimia (Homo Faber : Julius Evola between Art and Alchemy).

The second point concerns Evola's ... very personal, almost Manichaean interpretation of the sexes, which has multiple sources. Chief among them are the philosopher Otto Weininger (1880-1903), ... Johann Jakob Bachofen (whom Evola completely reinterprets), as well as Tantrism.

The third essential point is Evola's attempt to portray alchemy a royal-heroic path to transcendence.

With this he wanted to assert the primacy of the royal ... caste (kshatriya) over the priestly caste (brahmin), which ... brought him into an inescapable and unresoluble conflict with his mentor, Rene' Gue'non."

{Within Bharata itself, the philosophical systems imparting primacy to the ks.atriya varn.a are typically nastika dharma-s : Ajivika and Bauddha. But the Pas`u-pata religious orders may in some instances regard non-brahmin descent as praeferable.}

"Otto Weininger on the Internet". http://www.theabsolute.net/ottow/

 

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Peter J. Forshaw (ed.) : Lux in Tenebris : the Visual and the Symbolic in Western Esotericism. ARIES BOOK SERIES : TEXTS & STUDIES IN WESTERN ESOTERICISM, Vol. 23. Brill, Leiden, 2017.