Oxford Handbook of Syn-aithesia, 37



Synaisthesia, Imagery, & Performance

Mark C. Price


p. 730 lines, ribbons, sections of space to repraesenting time in synaisthetes (described in more detail in Price 2009)

"The synesthetes all experienced spatial forms for months and weekdays in the shape of lines, ribbons, or sections of space running either in a simple circle or in a more irregular three-dimensional (3D) trajectory.

Some also experienced a spatial form for numbers."

Price 2009 = Mark C. Price : "Spatial Forms and Mental Imagery". CORTEX 45.10:1229-45.

p. 732 high IQ is correlated with high number of forms in synaisthetes

"Simner (2009) pointed out that the synesthetes sampled in Simner et al. (2009) had unusually high levels of IQ and education ... .

Simner 2009 = Julia Simner : "Synaesthetic Visuo-Spatial Forms : Viewing Sequences in Space. CORTEX 45.10:1138-47.

Simner et al. 2009 = Julia Simner; Neil Mayo; Mary-Jane Spiller : "Visuo-Spatial Synaesthetes Present with Cognitive Benefits". CORTEX 45.10:1246-60.

p. 739 zoom into spatial forms

"people ... report that their image of the form rotates in relation to their viewpoint, or that they feel they move within their form. It is also common for people to report that they can "zoom into" parts of their spatial forms ... (Kosslyn, Shephard, and Thompson 2007)."

Kosslyn, Shephard, & Thompson 2007 = Stephen M. Kosslyn; Jennifer Shephard; & William Thompson : "Spatial Processing During Mental Imagery". In :- Fred Mast & Lutz Ja:ncke (edd.) : Spatial Processing in Navigation, Imagery and Perception. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-16.

p. 740 diversity of spatial forms in a single experiencer

"A minority of sequence-form synesthetes report a vast number of different forms (e.g., Hubbard et al. 2009),

suggesting that visual-spatial encoding has developed into a cognitive strategy."

{more accurately, suggesting that those intra-mental resident deities who impart such spatial forms to the mortal's consciousness, are habituated to introducing the forms in considerable diversity}

Hubbard et al. 2009 = Hubbard; Ranzini; Piazza; & Dehaene : "... Interference in Number-Form Synesthesia". CORTEX 45.10:1200-16.

pp. 742-3 projector- & associator-synesthetes

p. 742

One well-known "individual difference in synesthesia has been the distinction between grapheme-color synesthetes who claim {actually perceive, not merely "claim"} that

colors induced by the printed text are projected into space outside their body -- so-called projector synesthetes -- and

{This awareness may be projected into the mortal's mind by a deity residing in that space and transmitting into that mortal's mind.}

those who report that colors reside in their mind's eye -- so-called associator synesthetes (Dixon, Smilek, and Merikle 2004)."

{This awareness may be induced within the mortal's mind by a deity residing within that mortal's mind, perhaps cued by another deity outside of it.}

"Specifically, a distinction can be made between external space and so-called imaginal space ... (e.g., Bartolomeo 2002). Refining the dichotomous projector-associator distinction, Ward et al. [2007] ... distinguished between two types of projector and two types of associator.

In surface-projectors, grapheme color is experienced on the surface of a viewed page ... .

In near-space projectors, color is again experienced external to the body but is now located in free space ... .

On the other hand, see-associators have an impression of color in imaginal space ... .

Finally, for know-associators, color ... is just known rather than experienced as any kind of image. ...

p. 743

It should be noted that grapheme-color see-associators usually claim to experience that their color imagery is ... bound to images of the inducing graphemes in imaginal space (Ward et al. 2007).

This emphasizes that the imagery experienced ... is more complex ..., even when not projected. The broader character of this imagery is another issue that seems to have received sparse attention so far in the research literature."

{The character of such imagery is complex because dependent on interrelations of sub-planes of the mental plane (manas-maya-kos`a).}

Dixon, Smilek, & Merikle 2004 = Mike J. Dixon; Daniel Smilek; & Philip M. Merikle : "Projector Versus Associator Synesthetes". COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE AND BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE 4:335-43.

Bartolomeo 2002 = Paolo Bartolomeo : "The Relationship Between Visual Perception and Visual Mental Imagery". CORTEX 38:357-78.

Ward et al. 2007 = Jamie Ward; Ryan Li; Shireen Salih; & Noam Sagiv : "Varieties of Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia : a New Theory ... ". CONSCIOUSNESS & COGNITION 16:913-31.

p. 743 "ticker-tape" experience of words

"grapheme-color synesthetes sometimes report that when they hear or think of words, they experience the colored letters of the words as if the words are presented in front of (or running past) their eyes like subtitles. This so-called ticker-tape experience, which has received very little attention in the literature so far, is also found in people with no grapheme-color experience who experience vivid imagery of uncolored words flowing past them.

Similarly, in a variety of auditory-visual synesthesia, sounds elicit colored geometric objects in specific spatial locations (Chiou, Stelter, and Rich, in press [2012 : cited supra, p. 268])."

Chiou, Stelter, & Rich 2012 = Rocco Chiou; Marleen Stelter; & Anina N. Rich : "Auditory-Visual Synaesthesia Induces Experiences of Geometric Objects in Specific Locations". CORTEX 49.6:1750-63.

p. 744 multiple simultaneous experiences by the same synaisthete of a single synaisthesia

"some individuals can maintain two coexisting images of grapheme colors, one of which is a projection and one of which is an association in imaginal space (Skelton, Ludwig, and Mohr 2009).

Furthermore, simultaneous spatial representations need not always correspond to each other (Zacks and Michelson 2005) so, for ... conflicting simultaneous representations of spatial forms".

Skelton, Ludwig, & Mohr 2009 = Richard Skelton; Casimir Ludwig; & Christine Mohr : "... To Distinguish Projector and Associator Synaesthetes". CORTEX 45.6:721-9.

Zacks & Michelson 2005 = Jeffrey M. Zacks & Pascale Michelson : "Transformations of Visuospatial Images". BEHAVIORAL & COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE REVIEWS 4:96-118.

p. 745 relative motion in synaisthesia

"For example, an observor might feel that ... spatial model of the calendar months rotates around or in front of them as the months go by ... .

{This would be most usual in waking visions (whether with the eyen open or not).}

Or they might figure they navigate through ... spatial model of the calendar months ... ." {Do the "months" repraesent divine entities who are posted to do guard-duty or surveillance-duty (spying on earthly governments set over mortal earthlings) during those specific months in a rotational military-style tour-of-duty?}

{This would be usual in dreaming, or in simultaneous dreaming-and-waking (with one's eyen shut). I experienced the latter once, wherein (while being led for admission into the insane-asylum ward) I was walking forward bodilessly in a dream-world chambre (filled with pieces of dream-furniture which my bodiless position was moving through without encountring resistance) which corresponded spatially with the waking world wherein my waking body was simultaneously walking. I figured that my dreaming-world correlate was taking positional dead-reckoning for eventual assault on the class-enemy which had activated the capitalist-stooge psychiatrists against us communists in the material plane (which is rather thoroughly controlled by capitalist-stooges).}

p. 746 the 2 types of mental imagery

"Spatial imagery is multimodal -- i.e., receives input from many different modalities ..., and does not need to include visual details ... . In spatial images it is relatively easier to simulate or analyze spatial relationships in a piecemeal manner (Hegarty 2010).

Visual imagery ... represents ... object properties such as overall shape and surface characteristics as defined ... by contour, texture, brightness or color. It is considered to be a more ... unitized representation than spatial imagery (... Kosslyn 2005) and has been ... more associated with image vividness ... (Reisberg, Pearson, and Kosslyn 2003)."

"people with good visual imagery (referred to as object visualizers) are faster and more accurate in visual memory tasks ... (Kozhevnikov, Kosslyn, and Shepard 2005).

People with good spatial imagery (... referred to as spatial visualizers) are good at dynamic image transformations due to their ability to analyze the explicit spatial structure of their spatial representation in a part by part manner (Kozhevnikov, Kosslyn, and Shepard 2005).

That people vary in spatial skill is acknowledged not only in the mental imagery literature, but also in research on spatial navigation (Aginsky et al. 1997) and working memory (Gyselinck et al. 2007)."

Hegarty 2010 = Mary Hegarty : "Mechanical Reasoning by Mental Stimulation". TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES 86:280-5.

Kosslyn 2005 = Stephen M. Kosslyn : "Mental Images and the Brain". COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 22:333-47.

Reisberg, Pearson, & Kosslyn 2003 = Daniel Reisberg; David G. Pearson; & Stephen M. Kosslyn : "The Role of Imagery Experience in Shaping an Investigator's Theoretical Views". APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 17:147-60.

Kozhevnikov, Kosslyn, & Shepard 2005 = Maria Kozhevnikov; Stephen Kosslyn; & Jennifer Shepard : "Spatial Versus Object Visualizers : a New Characterization ...". MEMORY & COGNITION 33:710-26.

Aginsky et al. 1997 = Aginsky; Harris; Rensink; & Beusmans : "Two Strategies for Learning a Route ... ". J OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 17:317-31.

Gyselinck et al. 2007 = Gyselink; de Beni; Pazzaglia; Meneghetti; & Mondoloni : "Working Memory Components and Imagery Instructions in the Elaboration of a Spatial Mental Model". PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH 71:373-82.

p. 748 spatial forms

"while some forms are experienced as unitary depictive images with visual properties, other forms are after all more spatial in nature. This applies especially to forms in which people report that they are dynamically immersed."

p. 749 synaisthesia by thinking about inducing it

"some synesthetes experience their concurrent sensation (e.g., a color) even when they just think about the usual perceptual inducer of the experience (e.g., a printed grapheme). It is also known that some ... synesthetes ... experience their concurrent if they try to deliberately generate a mental image of the usual inducer (Grossbacher and Lovelace 2001)."

Grossbacher & Lovelace 2001 = Peter G. Grossbacher & Christopher T. Lovelace : "Mechanisms of Synaesthesia". TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES 5:36-41.

p. 750 process of constructing mental imagery

"Kosslyn et al. (1988) reported behavioral data showing that visual images involving letters were built up in a piecemeal manner".

Kosslyn et al. 1988 = Kosslyn; Cave; Provost; & von Gierke : "Sequential Processes in Image Generation". COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 20:319-43.

pp. 750-1 verbal overwshadowing of pictorial and other memory

p. 750

"metacognitive distortion of experience ... appears to be especially likely when experiences such as percepts are decomposed and translated into words, a problem which is referred to as verbal overshadowing. For example when people verbally describe a face they have just seen, subsequent recognition of the face is impaired ... (Schooler and Engstler-Schooler 1990). ...

p. 751

Since verbal overshadowing has been reduplicated for various types of visual and spatial stimuli, as well as stimuli in other modalities such as audition and taste (Schooler and Schreiber 2004), it is likely to be relevant to many types of synesthetic experience."

Schooler & Engstler-Schooler 1990 = Jonathan W. Schooler & Tonya Y. Engstler-Schooler : "Verbal Overshadowing of Visual Memories : Some Things are Better Left Unsaid". COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 17:36-71.

Schooler & Schreiber 2004 = Jonathan W. Schooler & Charles A. Schreiber : "Experience, Meta-consciousness, and the Paradox of Introspection". J OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES 117.8:17-39.


Julia Simner & Edward M. Hubbard (edd.) : The Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford Univ Pr, 2013.