Talking With the Spirits

Tabula Contentorum







Luke & Hunter

9 to 17


Believing "Impossible" Things

Fiona Bowie



Spirit-Medium Experience in Great Britain

Hannah Gilbert



Spirits in ... Montre'al

Deidre Meintel



Metaphysics and Folk Models of Mind and Matter

Jack Hunter




Tamlyn Ryan



Spirit-Possession in East Africa

Barbara Sto:ckigt



Emergence of Spirits ... in Havana

Diana Espi`rito Santo



[Spirit-]Mediumship in Brazil

Bettina E. Schmidt



Incorporation into Ayahuasca Use

David Luke



Phainomena of Brazilian Media




Spirit-Media in Hong Kong and in the United States

Charles F. Emmons



Spirit-Mediumship in Singapore and in Taiwan

Fabian Graham


pp. 347-52 biographiai







Fiona Bowie


Oxford (Wolfson C.)

Afterlife Research Cen.

Charles F. Emmons


Gettysburg C.

Science and Spirit

Hannah Gilbert



Compassionate Wellbeing


Fabian Graham




Jack Hunter





Stanley Krippner




David Luke


of Greenwich

Breaking Convention


Fat[.]ima Regina Machado


of Sa~o Paulo

Inter Psi


Everton de Oliveira Maraldi




Deidre Meintel


de Montre'al





of York

Virtual Spirituality


Diana Espi`rito Santo


New (Lisbon)


Bettina E. Schmidt


of Wales

Spirit Possession & Trance


Barbara Sto:ckigt




Wellington Zangari


of Sa~o Paulo

Inter Psi

Capp. 0-1.




Luke & Hunter

9 to 17

David Luke

p. 10 entranced self-mortification

"in recent years, the rise of enormous cults cults like Maria Lionza in Venezuela that practice self-mortification trance mediumship (Ferra`ndiz, 1996) ... makes ... some parallels ... perceptible ..., {in} as much as Chinese spirits

feed on

{expect, as minimal token of sincerity and of earnestness}

the pain

{Wrong! : for, because they are entranced, they can sense no pain.}

and self-mortification of Taiwanese warrior mediums (Graham)."

Ferra`ndiz, 1996 = Francisco José Ferra`ndiz : The Body and Its Senses : the Spirit Possession Cult of Maria Lionza in Contemporary Venezuela. PhD diss, Univ of CA at Berkeley.

p. 11 academic researchers simultaneously practicing spirit-mediumship

"Emmons' deep ethnographic approach ... extends as far as actually training and practicing as a medium himself ..., a move which, thankfully, is being somewhat emulated by more novice researchers in the field, such as Spiritualist medium researcher Elizabeth Roxburgh (2010)."

Roxburgh, 2010 = Elizabeth C. Roxburgh : The Psychology and Phenomenology of Spiritualist Mental Mediumship. PhD thesis, Univ of Northampton.

pp. 11-12 paranthropology revolution

p. 11

"Stemming from the 1970s' revolution in the field of anthropology, a consequence of the rift that emerged between those researchers sympathetic to apparent parapsychological phenomena and those against it (see ... Angroff & Barth, 1974), the anthropology of consciousness was born, ... and is now being reinvigorated with the growth of the paranormal-focused paranthropology (Hunter, ... 2012; Luke, 2010). The term paranthropology itself was originally proposed by Roger Westcott (1977) ...,

p. 12

but was immediately superseded by transpersonal anthropology (see Laughlin, 2012) ... . The term has since been renewed by Jack Hunter (2010) who, in 2010, began publishing the ongoing periodical Parapsychology : Journal of Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal."

Angroff & Barth, 1974 = Allan Angoff & Diane Barth : Proceedings of an International Conference : Parapsychology and Anthropology. NY : Parapsychology Foundation.

Hunter, 2012 = Jack Hunter : "Anthropology and the Paranormal". In :- Jack Hunter (ed.) : Paranthropology : Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal. Bristol : Paranthropology. pp. 20-42.

Luke, 2010 = David Luke : "Parapsychology and Anthropology : Still Hostile ...?". TIME & MIND 3.3:245–66.

Westcott 1977 = Roger W. Westcott : "Paranthropology : ... Celebration and ... Commentary". In :- Joseph K. Long (ed.) : Extrasensory Ecology : Parapsychology and Anthropology. Metuchen (NJ) : Scarecrow Pr. pp. 331-47.

Laughlin, 2012 = C. D. Laughlin : "Transpersonal Anthropology". In :- Jack Hunter (ed.) : Paranthropology : Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal. Bristol : Paranthropology. pp. 69-98.

Hunter 2010 = Jack Hunter : "Anthropology and the Paranormal". PARANTHROPOLOGY 1.1:2-3.

p. 13 evidence

"in addition to the huge amounts of ethnographic literature on the varied practice and experience of spirit mediumship there is also a wealth of experimental data, going back over a century, which appears to suggest that, with certain mediums at least, there may be some form of information and energy transfer taking place that cannot be accounted for by normal {dogmatic materialist} means (see ... Braude, [1986] ... for useful overviews of some of this literature)."

Braude, 1986 = Stephen E. Braude : The Limits of Influence : Psychokinesis ... . London : Routledge; NY : Kegan Paul. (1991 reprinted; 1997 rev. edn. Lanham (MD) : Univ Pr of America)



Believing "Impossible" Things

Fiona Bowie


p. 49, n. 1:2 paranormal fact vs. materialist hypothesis

"LeShan states the problem thus : '... the theory must bow to the brute fact, we must be clear as to what is the theory and what is the fact. The paranormal event is the fact. Our definition of reality, which decides for us what is possible or impossible,

is the theory' (2009, p. 63)."

{or (as in the case of materialist "theory" contradicted by paranormal fact) is a thoroughly discreditable hypothesis}

LeShan 2009 = Lawrence L. LeShan : A New Science of the Paranormal : the Promise of Psychical Research. Wheaton & Chennai : Theosophical Publ House.

pp. 20-1 materialist anthropology's service to oppression by ploutokrateia, vs. parapsychological anthropology's service to liberation by the supernatural

p. 20

"Howard (2013, p. 2) is not alone in critiquing

the distancing project

{distanced from kindliness and from goodwill; deliberately evading responsibility for benevolence and for helpfulness}

of much {ploutokrat-materialist} anthropology as a form of signification that 'hearkens back to the oppression and hegemony that legimated the expansion of Western imperialist rule' ... . Howard calls for an anthropological study

p. 21

of religion that allows for the possibility of supernatural realities,

'an allowance for a transcendence ...' (ibid. p. 1)."

{transcendentally subtle planes-of-existence beyond the material plane}

Howard 2013 = Aaron Joshua Howard : "Beyond Belief : Ethnography, the Supernatural and Hegemonic Discourse". PRACTICAL MATTERS 6:1-17. Emory Univ.

p. 21 allow the same generosity?

"A Western positivist education ... can allow the same generosity to people who talk of dialogues with the dead or possession by spirits as to physicists who talk of particle entanglement ... ."

{The reason why ploutokrat-warmonger-controlled universities cannot allow the same generosity is that, whereas "particle entanglement" could conceivable find a place in thermonuclear weapons-of-aggression systems aimed at annihilating all life on this planet at the jaded whim of merciless ploutokrats; yet nevertheless to very contrary, "dialogues with the dead" could lead only to universal peace and goodwill (the very antithesis of every purpose of the nihilist ploutokrateia).}

p. 23 physical mediumship is readily verified

"In many ways physical mediumship ... should be one of the most straightforward 'impossible things' to verify ... . Physical mediumship is repeatable in strictly controlled settings, and many of the best physical mediums working today are, like their Nineteenth and Twentieth Century predecessors, willing to undergo repeated and uncomfortable procedures, such as routinely being searched, bound and gagged before going into trance, in order to deflect accusations of fraud and trickery." [p. 50, n. 1:8 : "For a succinct account of contemporary physical mediumship see Hunter (2013)."]

Hunter 2013 = Jack Hunter : "Contemporary Physical Mediumship : ... Part of a Continuous Tradition". PARANTHROPOLOGY 3.1:35-43.

pp. 23-4 materialism's arbitrary rejection of (refusal to consider) all relevant evidence

p. 23

"The claim that 'extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof' has been variously attributed ... . ... What qualifies as an extraordinary is also ... based on ideology ..., changing radically over time. ... What counts as proof, however, is contested and

p. 24

it becomes evident that for some 'professional' sceptics is not really an issue as the boundaries of what is accepted and what is rejected

have been established a priori.

{established by decree of some war-mongering ploutokrat family of greed-maddened atheist-materialists}

The admission of evidence becomes irrelevant."

pp. 24, 26 physical mediumship

p. 24

"Physical mediumship ... falls [a]foul of Biblical prescriptions (Leviticus 19:31, 20:27; I Chronicles 10:13-14). Mediums are generally motivated by ethical concerns".

{The fact that spirit-mediumship is motivated by ethical concerns is what is so intensely disgusting to Christians, who are commanded by the Bible systematically to mass-murder the world's entire population, sparing no man, nor woman, nor child.}

p. 26

"Physical mediumship is a broad term used to designate the production of physical phenomena by a medium, usually entranced, with the help of the energy of

a group of 'sitters' and a spirit team.

{The "spirit team" is a collective of the spirit-guides and/or spirit-helpers of the human "sitters".}

A key feature of physical mediumship that distinguishes it from

mental mediumship -- in which the medium is generally the only person who sees, hears or receives impressions from the spirit world, is that

{In other words, in "mental mediumship" only the spirit-medium is tuned into the spirit-world, contrary to "mental mediumship " wherein all persons praesent are (praesumably by raising a cone-of-power) thus tuned-in.}

[quoted from Foy, 1996, p. vii] everybody present is able to see, hear and feel such manifestations as they occur".

Foy, 1996 = Robin P. Foy : In Pursuit of Physical Mediumship : a Psychic Autobiography. London : Janus Publ Co. (reprinted 2007)

pp. 27-8 advanced mediumship

p. 27

"Some mediums can produce physical phenomena, such as apports, without going into a trance (such as Brazilian medium Amyr Amiden) ... . Lady Cynthia Sandys ... would go into a light trance when writing 'letters' from her spirit communicators.

Some of the most dramatic forms of mediumship occur when a physical medium, almost invariably in a deep trance, is able to produce a substance known as ectoplasm.

Ectoplasm is said to be made up of physical substances from the medium's body,

{Using the medium's material body as portal into the space of the material universe, the ectoplasm (which is of aitheric nature) arriveth from (is pulled out from) another plane-of-existence.}

which can be manipulated energetically by experienced spirits.

Initially a trance medium may display transformations ... during which

an ectoplasmic energy layer over the medium's face is manipulated by the spirits to change the appearence of the face.

{so-called "transfiguration" of what are known as "face-forms" (one's face in other lifetimes -- past and future --, according to Bauddha metaphysics)}

The spirits may speak through the medium's vocal chords, changing the tone and character of the voice. A further stage of development involves the production of an ectoplasmic 'voice box,' enabling the spirits to speak from anywhere in the se'ance room."

p. 28

"The Massachusetts housewife and trance medium, Leonora Piper, (1859-1950) was studied intensively for twenty-five years (Tymn, ... 2013). While in trance Mrs Piper was taken over by a number of 'controls,' in particular by a spirit ... called Phinuit. The control acts as a partner to the medium, and has to enter

an equivalent 'trance'

{a mutually resonant vibrational state}

from the 'other side'

{of the portal between planes-of-existence}

in order to speak through the medium. When not possessing the medium directly, the control acts as

a gatekeeper for

{custodian of keys for locking & unlocking the gates to the divine palaces in Heaven}

other spirits who are permitted to enter and use the medium's body."

{helper/helping spirits}

Tymn, 2013 = Michael E. Tymn : Resurrecting Leonora Piper. Guildford : White Crow Bks.

"Leonora E(velina Simonds) Piper", article in Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology

pp. 29-30 protocol for an experiment in physical mediumship

p. 29

"The Felix Experimental Group (FEG) founded by trance medium Kai Muegge in 2004 in Frankfurt, Germany, has had remarkable success in not only enabling spirit forms to manifest using ectoplasm from the medium's body, but photographing the process ... . ... The FEG account of experiment ["PhMUS"] outlines the safety protocols followed ... . ...

p. 30

Despite these controls, which because of the additional stress they caused the medium might be expected to reduce the likelihood of success,

{Likelihood of success could also be diminished by possible offense to the divinity (familiar spirit, or imp) who was actually generating the phainomena on behalf of the human spirit-medium.}

several paranormal events were observed and filmed".


pp. 31-2, 50-1 an inauthentic act (so-called "fraud") is necessary in order to generate a genuine act of physical mediumship

p. 31

[quoted from Kripal, 2010, p. 52] "it is almost as if the real needs the fake to appear at all, as if the fact relies on the fiction to manifest itself, only to immediately hide itself again in ... the ... hesitation that follows. ...

p. 32

It is as if the sacred is itself tricky."

{especially whenever directed by trickster-deities}

"Kripal is reminded of ... physicist and psychical researcher Russell Targ, who ... became aware that whilst performing a mentalist trick on stage, he began receiving telepathic messages."

[Ibid. :] "The trick was a trick, but it was also, somehow, catalyzing the real deal".

p. 50, n. 15

"the collective energy and expectation of the group ... created a semi-material {i.e., aitheric} 'thought-form' that had some

p. 51, n. 15

autonomy, or ... they attracted and channelled another or other discarnate communicators

{Only the latter explanation would make any sense, inasmuch as one's "thought-form" cannot in any way have "autonomy".}

who played along".

{Divinities generally agree with mortals.}

Kripal, 2010 = Jeffrey John Kripal : Authors of the Impossible. Univ of Chicago Pr.

{Perhaps the instances of "fraud" were required by spirit-guide divinities in order to delude evil spirits (especially spirits of materialists) into not recognizing that some other instances are genuine -- thereby the evil spirits are misled into ignoring those particular spirit-media (and thus into neglecting to emplace harmful evil spells of the sorts regularly employed by self-styled "skeptics"). Jokes, satire, etc. by possessing-spirits could have similarly misleading effects, diverting (by seeming lack of sincerity) "skeptics" into abandoning plans of wreaking (on spirit-mediumship) harm by their notorious evil spells invoking the malicious imps of capitalist materialism. [written Jan 15 2015]}

p. 35 [quoted from Kripal 2012, pp. xxxii-xxxiii] evidence of parapsychology is accepted by think-tanks

"(1) there is massive ethnographic, historical, cross-cultural, and now, scientific evidence that puts the existence of psi phenomena well beyond any reasonable doubt;

(2) this data {these data -- or, this datum} has been collected, analysed, meta-analysed and theorized ... by ... university-trained humanists, Nobel Prize-winning physicists, highly classified military programmes, and elite corporate think tanks (some of which are already quietly proceeding to pursue new psi-based communications technology); and finally

(3) despite all this, parapsychology remains the favourite target of ideologically driven sceptics who insist on reverting to a predictable series of ... shaming techniques, mostly professional ridicule, to keep intellectual interested in these matters sufficiently silent".

{Such purported "ideologically driven sceptics" are more likely to be mostly secret agents for the "highly classified military programmes", and hirelings of the "elite corporate think tanks", who seek by their manoeuvres to keep the true facts away from the minds of the general public. [written Jan 15 2015]}

Kripal 2012 = Sudhir Kakar & Jeffrey J. Kripal (edd.) : Seriously Strange.

{It is generally recognized by honest, unbiased researchers concerning flying-saucers that governmental official denials of the existence of such, are, in fact, transparently evident sheer bluffs, sheer disinformation [all masterminded by the Republican Party -- whereas Democratic-Party Praesidents of the United States, and Democratic-Party candidates for nomination for Praesident of the United States, admit to having personally witnessed flying saucers] mischievously intended to deceive the public in general and voters in particular.}

pp. 46-7 other worlds, other consciousnesses : different from the so-called "physical"

p. 46

[quoted from James 1902, p. 376] "the world of our present consciousness is only one out of many worlds of consciousness that exist, and ...

those other worlds must contain experiences which have a meaning for our life also; and ...

though in the main their experiences and those of this world keep discrete, yet

p. 47

the two become continuous at certain points, and higher energies filter in".

"the total expression of human experience, as I view it objectively, urges me beyond the narrow 'scientific' bounds.

Assuredly, the real world is of a different temperament -- more intricately built than physical science allows".

James 1902 = William James : The Varieties of Religious Experience. (reprinted 2008)

{"As to there being such real natural types of phenomena ignored by orthodox science, I am not baffled at all, for I am fully convinced of it." }


Jack Hunter & David Luke (edd.) : Talking With the Spirits : Ethnographies from Between the Worlds. Daily Grail Publ, Brisbane, 2014.