Cosmography (in Puran.a, in Abhi-dharma, etc.) Analyzed (in terms of planes-of-existence)

described from outermost perimetre, inwards as far as Meru; thereafter proceeding above Meru, upwards

features of divine continent

signification thereof

2 concentrical circular mountain-ranges of Loka-aloka

2 states-of-awareness : hypn-agogic & hypno-pompic

4 continents (location according to the Abhi-dharma), each of a different shape

subplanes of the astral plane

ring-shaped continent Pus.kara divided into 2 rings by mt Manasa ("S`&S`", p. 214, fn. 24), Manus.a in the Jaina account

[Norse] FYLGja ('fetch') = [etymologically] r.s.i PULaHa; aitheric body (becoming silvern cord during projection of astral body)

5 more inward concentric ring-shaped continents separated by ring-shaped oceans

subplanes of the mental plane-of-existence

Ila-vr.ta square-shaped (according to Puran.a)

causal plane (square region consisting of concentric square frames, according to Bon cosmography)

8 mountains, consisting of 2 in each of 4 directions from Meru

one's spirit-guides, consisting of 4 immortal couples (according to U-Mbanda)


[Hellenic] MOIRai (aequivalent to [Norse] nornir) = 3 divinely arranged destinies, to wit, past, praesent, & future

9 Megha-s ('clouds') layered above Meru (according to Puran.a)

9 "shadows" of each person in Taoist soul-system {Latin \imber\ 'cloud' : \umbra\ 'shadow'}

Tus.ita ('satisfied')

temporary satisfaction achieved via sama-adhi?

Yama ('restraint')

practices of yoga (also the ni-yama-s)

Abha-Swara ('luminance-musicnote')

viewing of divine luminance and/or hearing of divine music

N.B. The fraction-of-disk-shaped eastern continent (according to the Abhi-dharma) Bhadra-as`va (but named "Purva-videha" in the Maha-vastu and in the Lalita-vis.t.ara -- "S`&S`", p. 213) is, in conversion into the Pauran.ik cosmography, multiplied by four (cf. Twas.t.r's cup, multiplied into 4 according to the Veda), and each of these 4 fastened to a side of the square upa-vars.a ILa-VR.ta (cognate with ILLURia, modernly Albania) so as to make for a disk-shaped vars.a Jambu-dvipa.

The other directional continents include the northern Ud-tara-Kuru (square and therefore internally crisscrossed like tictactoe, with Lam[b]at sign for each crossing, i.e., with 4 apertures into the subterranean realm -- as witnessed in sky-travel during otherworldly astral projection, according to Robert Bruce?) and the southern Jambu-dvipa.

"S`&S`" = Walter Eugene Clark : "S`akadvipa and S`wetadvipa". J.A.O.S.

[written Wedn 13 December 2017] [Some of these identifcations I may have thought of and witten down some years earlier.]


The the 8 mountains surrounding Meru are perhaps aequivalent to the 8 so-called elephantine deities praesiding over the 8 directions. Not further characterized in the Puran.a, the names of this elephants are of persons (e.g., prominent in the Katha-sarit Sagara.

The concentric ring-shaped island-continents have as names of some of their vars.a-s, names of entities prominent in the Katha-sarit Sagara ('tale-stream sea') belonging to the Dig-ambara denomination of the Jaina religion; in that K-SS there is frequently described a process for a person whose material body is due to senility of old-age defunct (with the life having departed but lingering in vicinity : apparently meaning projected out of the material body, and seeking a more youthful body to occupy), to occupy the material body of another person whose material body is abandoned although it be as yet in good health (described as being "dead", but apparently meaning in a deep trance). This process is regularly described in the history of religions as a specialty of the Ajivika religious order, an order stated by the Dig-ambara denomination to be a religious order of its own, so that thus the K-SS would evidently be litterature emanating from the Ajivika religious order.

As a combination of the cosmography in the Maha-bharata (to wit, mt Meru with 4 continents extending from its alike unto the 4 petals of a cruciferous-blossomed vegetable) of the cosmography (of concentric-rings) implied in the Katha-sarit Sagara, the geography in the Puran.a is seemingly a composite, adopted as a means of compromise to satisfy practioners of each of the systems.

A different sort of compromise is arranged in the Bon litterature, with its central region Taoist (to wit, consisting of concentric-square rim-islands) and its outer region Jaina.

[decided on in mid-Dec 2017; possibly much of this had thought of years earlier but had thereafter forgotten until having written this]


The ruts of the career of the chariot being driven by Priya-vrata are said (in the Kambha Rama-ayana ) to have become the seven seas betwixt the concentric ring-shaped island-continents. This name-portion \-VRATya\ is most likely cognate with English \WRAITH\, which (being a phantom-semblance resembling the person to whom it is disclosing itself, manifesting to a person who is about to die) is identical with the Scottish \fetch\, the nautical signification whereof is 'to arrive (at a seaport) by ship (i.e., by way of travel at sea)'. The earlier use of this word in Scottish litterature is (according to Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary) as \warth\ 'guardian angel'.The name-portion \PRIYA-\ ('dear, beloved') is said to be cognate with English \FRIEnd\

[written 19 Dec 2017]


The inner ring of Pus.kara dvipa is (according to the Varaha Puran.a -- WEC:"S`&S`", p. 214, fn. 33) Dhataki, a name otherwise spelled \DHATUki\ = \THESeUs\ (who would reside here); the outer ring of Pus.kara dvipa is according to "some manuscripts" (WEC:"S`&S`", p. 214, fn. 35) of Puran.a, \Maha-vira\, which would be residence of Jaina tirthan-kara ('ford-maker') of the same name (alias dictus Vardha-mana); though most manuscripts have \Maha-vita\.

Considering the words \<ADiyR\ 'pool, pond' and \<ADiyRah\ 'pigtail, braid, plait (of hair)' (DMWA, p. 780b) : the three gun.a-s (namely, sattva, rajas, tamas) are said to be braided together -- which could not apply to material substances, but might apply to aitheric substances. 'Braid' is \plex-\, as in the name \Plex-[h]ippos\ of, according to Servius (commentary, on Vergilius : Aeneid 8.138), a son of Khorikos (DCM, s.v. "Choricus") 'pertaining to a chorus (of singers)' : cf. \<ina>\ 'singing, song' (DMWA, p. 804a), \>a<ann\ 'sonorous (of voice); nasalized (of enunciation)' (DMWA, p. 802b). \Plaks.a\ 'belonging or relating to or coming from the Ficus infectoria (strangler fig-tree)' is the name of the source of the river Sarasvati; this source is also known as (MBh, "S`alya Parvan" 54:11) Plaks.a-prasravan.a-tirtha ('stranglerfig-gushing ford').

According to MBh , the 4 varn.a-s ('castes') are, in S`aka dvipa : Manga ("the head [figurehead on the prow?] of a boat"), Mas`aka ('mosquito'), Manasa ('mental'), Mandaga (\manda\ 'slow' + \ga\ 'going'); according to >al-Bayruwniy citing Vis.n.u Puran.a, they are (WEC:"S`&S`", p. 224) :, Magadha, Manasa, Mandaga -- this \Magadha\ could indicate that S`akya-muni buddha (in the original myth whence a pseudo-historical narrative was afterwards contrived) resideth in S`aka dvipa.

Ekata, Dvita, and Trita [Aptya] are stationed on the shore of (MBh 12:336:23 -- WEC:"S`&S`", p. 225) Ks.ira Sam-udra ('milk ocean'); this must be S`veta-dvipa, likewise described as located in such an environs.

Narada visited NARa-ayana in (Varaha Puran.a 2:63 & 66:3 -- WEC:"S`&S`", p. 238) S`veta dvipa; cf. how Hera-klees visited and quaeried NEReus (GM 133.d).

"Matali was taken by Garud.a" (MBh, "Udyoga Parvan" 100 -- PE, s.v. "Narada 11)(32)"); Massilia (MATTiLia) was approached by (GM 132.k) Hera-klees.

Narada went to GARUd.a loka (MBh, "Udyoga Parvan" 101 -- PE, s.v. "Narada 11)(33)"); Hera-klees went to GERU-oneus (GM 132.d).

WEC:"S`&S`" = Walter Eugene Clark : "". J OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOC 39 (1919):209-42. "Download PDF"

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955

[written 20 Dec 2017]


Approaching from outside (thus, from external understandings) :-

A-vyakta ('non-manifest') could have its name implying incertitude concerning divine worlds, that is, uncertainty concerning divinities, which uncertainty would amount to a-gnosticism. Therefore, here in the A-vyakta would reside the sprites which express only lack of information pertaining to other divine entities. Their minds may possibly become hazy if attempting (such as, by being coaxed into) thinking about other categories of divine entities.

Mahat ('greatness') -- the term usually applying to an extollation of tirtha-s (or other sites-of-peregrination) along a route traveled by pilgrims -- and said to be as thin as an insect's wing, could be the abode of insect-winged divinities : goddess Itz-papalotl ('obsidian butterfly), butterfly-winged "fae:ries", dragonfly-winged "fae:ries", and their ilk.

Butterfly-divinities would be active during the daytime; dragonfly-divinities active (because dragonflies feast on mosquitos then) at night. A mosquito's humming may be reminiscent of 'fae:ry music' planxty (ECM&F, q.v.), that name likely referring to the Planktai ('clashing') isles encountred by the legendary ship Argoi (\arges\ 'flash', cf. the firefly : so-called "fairy lights" being witnessed as "twinkling lights").

Loka-aloka ('world-lamp') could have its name implying Lokayata dars`ana, an outright denial of existence of other divine worlds -- but this denial could be based merely on forgetfulness, so that the denial could be a denial simply of retaining clear memories of having experienced particular communications with those other worlds. The term \aloka\ could imply a memory which can be shut off, just a lamp can be extinguished : the memory might be resumed which each commencement of a telepathic communication with some particular other divine world, and then terminated at the close of each such communication.

A lamp (shining during the night) is attractive to moths; flying moths are feasted on by bats (Cheiro-ptera) in flight guided by sonar-detection : in the Jaina system, arhant-s are said to become bats.

A section of Pus.-kara ('flower-making'), MAHA-VItA would be the abode of MAHA-VIrA ('great hero'), the Jaina tirthan-kara.

The other section of Pus.-kara, Dhatuki ('little metals'), would exemplify the metal-alloy balls used (in Burma and elsewhere) for prayer-invocations addressed by mortals to an immortalized (as earthly immortal -- thus described in Taoist hagiography) vidya-dhara : each such vidya-dhara being (prior to immortalization through rising resurrected from the tomb) a mortal chosen by a possessing-divinity for that mortal's material body being (at certain times) occupied, so that the mortal's body's mouth can be spoken through.

[written 23 Dec 2017]