Effects of gravitational impedance
If the field-strength of the gravitational field cannot diminish lower than a set unit (quantum) value, this would account for the non-diminishment (with distance) of gravitational force beyond a certain distance in a galaxy, thus accounting for (without requiring any "dark matter") the constant angle of rotation of the galaxy with regard to distance from the centre.
If, furthermore, the angle of impedance of the gravitational wave is oriented (in respect to the wave’s direction of travel) in opposite direction to the orientation of the impedance of the electromagnetic wave; then the effect of the zigzagging in orientations of gravitational field, (determined by paths of travel of a wave relative to the orientations, pointing toward galactic centres, of gravitational fields in its line of travel across intergalactic space) may produce an amplification in intensity (amplitude of the wave) of light through effect on the light’s impedance, by increase of tension through the forces’ acting simultaneously in opposite directions. If so, this would supply an increase in apparent luminosities of cosmological distances, accounting for the result that galaxies seem (if luminosity is assumed constant with distance) nearer, or aequivalently, more closely spaced to each other than would appear locally : a result which could enhance calculated distances of galaxies, or aequivalently increase their spacing – thereby eliminating the main support for the notion of a "big bang".
The suggestion of opposite orientation of a gravitational wave’s impedance from that of an electromagnetic wave, is taken from the re-interpretation, in terms of vectors and vector products, of the opposite values which, if taken as scalars would be expressed thus :-
the aequation e = mc^2 is applicable only to gravitons (but not to photons)
the factor c (= velocity of light) is distance (a vector-quantity) divided by time – but because, in the theory of relativity, time is always considered to be an imaginary (= i) quantity, therefore its square must be a negative number, implying that e = negative mass, or that mass = negative energy. This is not true of photons; but,
as for gravitons, it may be observed that the result of their impact upon a massive body is not to drive it away (as would necessarily be the result if they were positive in mass), it to draw it closer (as could occur only if the graviton is negative in mass). Therefore, relativistic effects cannot apply to photons, but rather only to gravitons.
When taken in terms of vectors, a square of a vector (velocity and time each being a vector) would be an oriented plane-segment (of a certain area); it would be the signs of the oriented planes (i.e., the orientations in regard to direction of travel) which would be opposite, enabling interactions to enhance effects by increasing tensions.
[written July 19th Satur 2008]